Make your own free website on Tripod.com

If you are looking for web resources related to a specific section of the Constitution, you have found the right place.

NOTE: For a similar guide to books on the web, click Book Guide.

Click content, format, and permissions for more information about this page, including how to use, not to mention a downloading hot spot for the zipped file.

Click Site Mission & Philosopy for more on link criteria.

You can click General Constitution or General Bill of Rights for links generally related to those areas.

Or, click thuh links please to browse the references without using the index.

Otherwise, browse the index immediately beneath the horizontal rule to jump directly to a section of the Constitution of interest to you.


Index

Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union,
Article I
Section 1 All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress
Section 2 The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members
Section 3 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
Section 4 The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and
Section 5 Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its
Section 6 The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services,
Section 7 All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the
Section 8 The Congress shall have Power . . . .
Section 9 The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing
Section 10 No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of
Article II
Section 1 The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States
Section 2 The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy of the United
Section 3 He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the State of
Section 4 The President, Vice-President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be
Article III
Section 1 The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and
Section 2 The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, arising under this
Section 3 Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War against them,
Article IV
Section 1 Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public Acts, Records, and
Section 2 The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and Immunities of
Section 3 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but no new State
Section 4 The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form
Article V The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose
Article VI All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this
Article VII The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the
Signatures
Ratification Resolution In Convention Monday, September 17th. 1787.
Resolution Proposing Bill of Rights Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of
Bill of Rights
Amendment I Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
Amendment II A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State,
Amendment III No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the
Amendment IV The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and
Amendment V No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous
Amendment VI In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy
Amendment VII In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty
Amendment VIII Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
Amendment IX The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be
Amendment X The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
Amendment XI The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to
Amendment XII The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for
Amendment XIII Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment
Amendment XIV
Section 1 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to
Section 2 Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according
Section 3 No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or Elector
Section 4 The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law,
Section 5 The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation,
Amendment XV The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
Amendment XVI The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from
Amendment XVII The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each
Amendment XVIII After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture,
Amendment XIX The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
Amendment XX
Section 1 The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end at noon on the 20th
Section 2 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting
Section 3 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President,
Section 4 The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons
Section 5 Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following
Section 6 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified
Amendment XXI The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States
Amendment XXII No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice,
Amendment XXIII The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall
Amendment XXIV The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or
Amendment XXV
Section 1 In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or
Section 2 Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice-President, the President
Section 3 Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate
Section 4 Whenever the Vice-President and a majority of either the principal
Amendment XXVI The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age
Amendment XXVII No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and
.

.



General Constitution Links

Constitutional Interpretation, I The Mysteries of the Constitution This is a lecture outline from a Junior level college philosophy course. Some excellent general issues about the Constitution are identified in this outline.

Discussion Guide for Developing Community Social Contracts A measured discussion of the concept of social contract as implicit among any large group of individuals living in the same area.

The Constitution as a Social Contract - A Liberal View This page is but one in a set of numerous articles involving the constitution in a liberal rebuttal of arguments the author labels "rightwing".

Polybius and the Founding Fathers: the separation of powers Contributions of an ancient Greek historian to the concept of separation of powers, a major concept of the US Constitution.



Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union,
FindLaw
 
Justice Fellowship a non-profit public policy organization, is dedicated to advancing Biblically based restorative justice principles throughout the United States. How many harmless souls are incarcerated in the Bible? That's how long the need for restorative justice has existed. Remember the clause in the Preamble, "to establish justice"? Perhaps that is the variety of justice this group hopes to restore.
 
Liberty and Libertarians Very extensive page, pro-libertarian with discussions of concept of liberty. Neither the Constitutional concept of Liberty nor any of its other concepts exist in a vacuum. They all exist in various contexts - political being one such context, social and ecomomic being two others. Hence the link to a somewhat politcal page here.
 
Preamble applied to Waco On-site analysis of Congressional hearings about Waco. Why was not the Constitution applied to that atrocity committed in our names? As part of this analysis, the initial raid is held up to scrutiny based on the objectives stated in the Preamble.
 
Cry FREEDOM ! The background image for this page (turn on your graphics to see it) is the earliest known written word for "freedom" or "liberty". Maintainer has a lot of other good stuff on his site.
 
OnLiberty.com Has a nice on-line course and lexicon.
 
Liberty Boats A brief, but telling, article about rights, military, and perhaps soon, civilian as well.
 
Liberty and Democracy The word "Liberty" is contained in the Preamble. This link takes you to some good essays and other information about the concept of Liberty.
 
Library of Liberty Takes you to a links page that in turn links you to on-line articles about (or related to) the concept of Liberty or to book reviews for hard-copy books related to the concept of Liberty. Well worth a stop if you want information about the concept of Liberty.
 
Home of Freedom ! About half way down this page is a very nice graphic about the concept of Liberty. Be sure to turn on your graphics if you want to see it.


ARTICLE I

FindLaw
 
AltaVista Browse related section on AltaVista.
 
Lycos - Government: U.S. Government: Congress Related browse section in Lycos search engine.
 
Yahoo Related browse section heading in Yahoo search engine.

Article I Section 1.1 All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress


Article I Section 2.1 The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen

Article I Section 2.2 No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the

Article I Section 2.3 Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the

The Schuyler Flatts A site with information regarding indentured servants, a class of individuals recognized in the Constitution for purposes of the census - including those bound to Service for a Term of Years

The Census Sampling Issue Article addresses a case related to census taking currently moving through the supreme Court appeal process. At issue is whether a direct actual count should be used or if results based on sampled information . . .

Article I Section 2.4 When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the

Article I Section 2.5 The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other


Article I Section 3.1 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from

Article I Section 3.2 Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first

Article I Section 3.3 No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of

Article I Section 3.4 The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of the Senate,

Article I Section 3.5 The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro

Article I Section 3.6 The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments.

Article I Section 3.7 Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to


Article I Section 4.1 The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and

Article I Section 4.2 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such


Article I Section 5.1 Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and

Article I Section 5.2 Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its

Article I Section 5.3 Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to

Congressional Record Online The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. It is published daily when Congress is in session.

Article I Section 5.4 Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the


Article I Section 6.1 The Senators and Representatives shall receive a

Article I Section 6.2 No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he


Article I Section 7.1 All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House

Article I Section 7.2 Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives

Article I Section 7.3 Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of


Article I Section 8 The Congress shall have Power . . . .
 
Maintainer's Comment
 

Article I Section 8.1 To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts

Article I Section 8.2 To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

Article I Section 8.3 To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several
Criminal Jurisdiction and the Commerce Clause Takes you to the middle of an essay involving the commerce clause, gun control, and the 10th amendment.
 
The James J. Hill Railroad Story Some events involving the US Congress that I do not recall hearing in 16 years of public "education". Maintainer's Comments
 
Economic Plutocracy Compare economic conditions described on this page to what you see happening. Then compare that with your expectations of government under the Constitution.

Article I Section 8.4 To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on

Article I Section 8.5 To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and
Visit TCNbP's Money and Taxes page for some good sources on this Constitutional provision.

Article I Section 8.6 To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and

Article I Section 8.7 To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

Article I Section 8.8 To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for
Opposing Copyright Extension Maintainer argues against changes recently proposed in Congress.
 
History of Copyright An excellent historical survey the Constitution's copyright provision beginning in 16th century England.

Article I Section 8.9 To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
Cooperative Federalism & Outlaw Courts According to this article, written in a rational tone apparently by a lawyer, "radical right wing fanatics" might not be the only ones operating outlaw courts. mc

Article I Section 8.10 To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high

Captain Morgan's Grog House Info about pirates.

Article I Section 8.11 To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make

Article I Section 8.12 To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to

Article I Section 8.13 To provide and maintain a Navy;

Article I Section 8.14 To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and

Article I Section 8.15 To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of

Article I Section 8.16 To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the
Maintainer's Comments
 
Liberty Boats A brief, but telling, article about rights, military, and perhaps soon, civilian as well.

Article I Section 8.17 To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over

The Builders A telling account of the early days of Washington, D.C.

Article I Section 8.18 To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for


Article I Section 9.1 The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States
Immigration Law A recent Presidential address on the topic of immigration.
 
Twenty_Five Lessons in Citizenship Book for use by immigrants seeking Citizenship.
Article I Section 9.2 The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be
Habeas Corpus Some comments on the meaning of a key word in this paragraph of the Constitution.
Article I Section 9.3 No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
Election 2000 On-site commentary about how this clause related to election 2000.
 
Bill Of Attainder Project Defining Bills Of Attainder: The maintainer, who is both Libertarian and a certified linguist, has done research that indicates the phrase "bill of attainder" is not defined. He warns, "Congress cannot protect you from a 'thing' it cannot define."
 
FEDERAL 'CRIME' Site maintainer is charged under RICO statutes. Maintains innocence. Cites Constitution's provisions regarding bills of attainder from this paragraph.
 
No Bills . . . This page is a lengthy treatise on bills of attainder and related materials. Also, includes a few links to other sites with related info.

Article I Section 9.4 No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in

Article I Section 9.5 No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any

Article I Section 9.6 No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or

Article I Section 9.7 No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of

Article I Section 9.8 No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And


Article I Section 10.1 No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation;

Election 2000 On-site commentary about how this clause related to election 2000.

Article I Section 10.2 No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any

Article I Section 10.3 No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of



ARTICLE II

FindLaw
 
AltaVista Browse related section on AltaVista.
 
P. ot U. S. The Presidents of the United States site has biographical sketches of all US Presidents along with information about significant events/policies/etc. related to the term of each.
 
Lycos - Government: U.S. Government: Executive Branch Related browse section heading in Lycos search engine.
 
Yahoo Browse related heading on Yahoo.

Article II Section 1.1 The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United

The Imperial Presidency's New Vestments This 141K (about 50 printed 8.5 by 11 inch pages) on-line article turns on the word "vested"; hence the term "vestments" in the title. Prepared by a professor of law, it is well-written and puts the Constitutional concept of "separation of powers" under a microscope using the issue of who can fire non-elected executive branch officials as a nucleus.

Article II Section 1.2 Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature

Election 2000 On-site commentary about how this clause related to election 2000.

Article II Section 1.3 The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by

Article II Section 1.4 The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and

Article II Section 1.5 No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the

Article II Section 1.6 In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his

Article II Section 1.7 The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his Services,

Article II Section 1.8 Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take


Article II Section 2.1 The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy
Executive Clemency in the Early Republic A sizeable (51K) text file containing a study of executive clemency in the years 1789 - 1817.
 
Executive Branch Departments and Independent Agencies Links to the 14 departments and descriptions of their commission. Also, same for 14 independent agencies.
Article II Section 2.2 He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the
Appointments Clause Gives extensive, detailed coverage about current practices regarding the appointments clause. Maintainer is a nationally recognized legal professional.

Article II Section 2.3 The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may


Article II Section 3.1 He shall from time to time give to the Congress


Article II Section 4.1 The President, Vice-President and all civil Officers of



ARTICLE III

FindLaw
 
The Strange Case of BLUM V. SCHLEGEL OR, why we need term limits for Federal Judges. Prepared by a professional lawyer. Interesting commentary on the current state of the Judiciary under original Constitutional provisions.
 
AltaVista Browse related section heading on AltaVista.
 
SECRET CANONS OF JUDICIAL CONDUCT Observations (tongue in cheek?) of Rhode Island court practices that might apply elsewhere.
 
USSC+ A Supreme Court WWW Resource with information about various rulings. Site also offers a CD-ROM.
 
Oyez Oyez Oyez: A Supreme Court WWW Resource with information about various rulings.
 
Lycos - Government: U.S. Government: Judicial Branch Related browse section heading in Lycos search engine.
 
Yahoo Related browse section headings on Yahoo.

Article III Section 1.1 The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested


Article III Section 2.1 The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law
Government Intervention in Church Controversies Given that federal legislation "regarding an establishment of religion" is proscribed by the 1st amendment, it puzzles me that the supreme Court would find cause to rule in such matters. Nonethess, it does. This site focuses on court cases involving religion or religious issues.

Judicial Selection Monitoring Project Site has information explaining judicial restraint versus judicial activisim.
 
Abortion Cases Synopsis of several cases related to abortion law. Identifies key Constitutional concepts related to this issue.
 
ADMIRALTY Since this paragraph of the Constitution contains the word "admiralty", here is a link to a good discussion of that term.
 
Cult of Scalia Another page in support of judicial restraint. Has links to several opinions written by Scalia. They make good reading.
 
Wacky Court Cases Wacky in name, or content, these cases, (all of them real according to the site's maintainer) add a second badly needed spot of humor to this page. (See 16th amendment for other spot of humor.)

Article III Section 2.2 In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public

Article III Section 2.3 The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment,


Article III Section 3.1 Treason against the United States, shall consist only

Article III Section 3.2 The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment



ARTICLE IV

FindLaw

Article IV Section 1.1 Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State to

 
Election 2000 On-site commentary about how this clause related to election 2000.


Article IV Section 2.1 The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all

Article IV Section 2.2 A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or

Article IV Section 2.3 No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under


Article IV Section 3.1 New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union;
LINCOLN'S LEGAL ARGUMENTS AGAINST SECESSION This is a good place to put a link related to secession. Author is an attorney who presents an excellent (critical) analysis of Lincoln's arguments in a measured tone.

Article IV Section 3.2 The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make


Article IV Section 4.1 The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union
Against Republicanism An article in opposition to republicanism by self-identified adherents to communism. See mc for my reasons and reflections regarding this link.
 
Domestic Violence Clause Site addresses the domestic violence clause of Article IV Section 4 rather extensively. Attempts to extend this clause to environmental issues. mc
 
Direct Democracy A very different (if not directly opposite) form of government than Republicanism as advocated by this paragraph of the Constitution. Alarm is expressed in this link about a 19th century attempt to fundamentally alter the amendment process in a way the would effectively bring about direct democracy in the United States. mc
 
Republic Defined Page is a brief essay that defines the term "Republic".
 
Republics and Democracies Since this paragraph in the Constitution contains the word "Republican", it seems appropriate to link here to a page that discusses the meaning of the word.



ARTICLE V

FindLaw

Article V Section 1.1 The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall
The Constitution Desecration Amendment A letter printed in a 1997 newspaper relating one person's views regarding flag burning and free speech.
 
Direct Democracy Frederick Douglass, in this text, raises some fundamental questions about the issues of separation of powers and the amendment process. He expresses alarm and dismay about a 19th century attempt to fundamentally alter the amendment process in a way the would effectively bring about direct democracy in the United States. mc
 
Electronic Amendment A lengthy resolution with reactions/solutions to various complaints about the federal government.
 
Editorials about the Flag Amendment The title says it all.
 
Get money out of politics! A proposed amendment related to campaign finance.
 
EPN on the Balanced Budget Amendment Maintainer is apparently opposed to the Balanced Budget amendment and has links to a lot of resources with arguments supporting that position. Good material.
 
In Support of the Balanced Budget Amendment Maintainer apparently supports the Balanced Budget amendment. Good material.
 
Assorted Proposed Amendments Maintainer collects amendments proposed by visitors and posts them on this page. Interesting.
 
Oust the Lawyers See missing 13th amendment (below, on this page) if you visit this site.
 
Initiative For a Constitutional Amendment Proposal for changing the way the President is elected. Intent is to allow foreign immigrants to qualify sooner.
 
Reinventing Democracy: The Citizens' Amendment
 
Madison: Amendments to the Constitution, 1789
 
11,0000(!) Proposed Amendments Annotations . . .
 
In Opposition to the Balanced Budget Amendment Economic argument against proposed amendment.



ARTICLE VI

FindLaw

Article VI Paragraph 1 All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into,

Article VI Paragraph 2 This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States
Do Treaties Supersede the Constitution? Part 1 of 2 Nice analysis of this issue. Talk about a pleasant surpise, finding this link was one!
 
NAFTA: The Mother Of All Stupid Ideas A rant against NAFTA that might well have been placed under the 1st amendment or in a corporate governance heading.
Article VI Paragraph 3 The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and
A Parable Involving Religious Oaths The Constitution states that religious oaths are not required. Where does it state they are not allowed?
 
Religious Oaths Some commentary on religious oaths.



ARTICLE VII

FindLaw

Article VII Paragraph 1 The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States,

Article VII Paragraph 2 Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the

Go. Washington - Presidt and deputy from Virginia nara bio



Signatures

The Founding Fathers: A Brief Overview This page summarizes the biographical information pertaining to all 55 State delegates who attended the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.

Delegates to the Constitutional Convention Page is prepared by National Archives and Records Administration. Has bio's of all 55 delegates. Bio's of non-signing delegates are indicated by an asterisk.

Maintainer's Comments

New Hampshire

John Langdon Information related to this signer is provided by a service that promotes NH tourism. nara
 
Nicholas Gilman Information related to this signer is provided by a service that promotes NH tourism. nara

Massachusetts

Nathaniel Gorham nara
 
Rufus King nara

Connecticut

Wm: Saml. Johnson nara
 
Roger Sherman nara

New York

Alexander Hamilton nara

New Jersey

Wil: Livingston nara
 
David Brearly nara
 
Wm. Paterson nara
 
Jona: Dayton nara

Pennsylvania

B Franklin nara
 
Thomas Mifflin nara
 
Robt Morris nara
 
Geo. Clymer nara
 
Thos FitzSimons nara
 
Jared Ingersoll nara
 
James Wilson nara
 
Gouv Morris nara

Delaware

Geo: Read nara
 
Gunning Bedford jun nara
 
John Dickinson nara
 
Richard Bassett nara
 
Jaco: Broom nara

Maryland

James McHenry nara
 
Dan of St. Thos. Jenifer nara
 
Danl Carroll nara

Virginia

John Blair --- nara
 
James Madison Jr. nara

North Carolina

Wm. Blount nara
 
Richd. Dobbs Spaight nara
 
Hu Williamson nara

South Carolina

J. Rutledge Site is maintained by Sean Rutledge, currently a proud resident of Greenwich, London UK, who is descended from Edward and John Rutledge who were signers of the Declaration and of the Constitution, respectively. nara
 
Charles Cotesworth Pickney nara
 
Charles Pickney nara
 
Pierce Butler nara

Georgia

William Few nara
 
Abr Baldwin nara



Ratification Resolution

Documentary History of the Ratification Currently, focusses on slavery and ratification. Click "Go to Documents" button to read on-line book.
 
T.L. Winslow's World History Timeline 1780-1789 C.E. On this single page find a hyperlinked account of history in the decade of the Constitution's writing and ratification.

Causes of the Civil War Perhaps nowhere can what was understood (by those ratifying the Constitution in the 1780's) more clearly be seen than in the documents pertaining to the (very near) dissolution of that delicate more perfect union as occurred in the American Civil War. And perhaps nowhere is this better explained than at this site. Two pages of particular interest are State Declarations of the Causes of Secession (4 separate documents are presented) and Ordinances of Seccession (13 separate documents are presented)

Paragraph 1 In Convention Monday, September 17th. 1787.

Paragraph 2 Resolved, That the preceding Constitution be laid before the United States

Paragraph 3 Resolved, That it is the Opinion of this Convention, that as soon as the

Signatures By the Unanimous Order of the Convention.



Resolution Proposing Bill of Rights

Paragraph 1 Congress of the United States begun and held at the City of New-York,

Paragraph 2 THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the time of their

Paragraph 3 RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of

Paragraph 4 ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution of the United

Signatures FREDERICK AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG



Bill of Rights, General

Bill of Rights Status Report For each of the 10 amendments in the Bill of Right, this article lists widely known threats or individual cases of abuse.

Shadow Law Page addresses entire Bill of Rights. Views are expressed in a severe tone.



AMENDMENT I

Paragraph 1 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or
Maintainer's Comments

Government Intervention in Church Controversies Given that federal legislation "regarding an establishment of religion" is proscribed by the 1st amendment, it puzzles me that the supreme Court would find cause to rule in such matters. Nonethess, it does. This site focuses on court cases involving religion or religious issues.
 
A Critique of Barlow's "A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace" A second look at the net. Broaches some very basic tenants of liberty. Addresses and assesses current situation and possibilities posed by the net. Slightly negative, alarmist in tone, but highly credible.

The Constitution Desecration Amendment A letter printed in a 1997 newspaper relating one person's views regarding flag burning and free speech.
 
School Prayer Subtitle: A DIVIDING LINE OF AMERICAN VALUES. As is the TCN site to the entire Constitution, this site is to the issue of school prayer. See mc for more.
 
American Civil Religion This excellent essay gets a link from here because of its title's reference to the word "religion". See also mc
 
Dr. John Clarke A brief bio on the individual credited with authoring the first written constitution (Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations) guaranteeing the right to religious freedom. This information supports those who assert that the US Constitution borrowed some its finer attributes from State Constitutions.
 
FindLaw
 
GOD's FINGERPRINT ON AMERICAN HISTORY Extra-Constitutional and even extra-American historical events illustrate some practical limits and parameters of religious freedom. True, this link is not strictly first amendment, but it does help place the 1st in a tangible historical context.
 
Essays by Gene Garman Menu of 13 excellent essays, 12 of which are related to the establishment clause.
 
Free Speech From the Netherlands, some philosophical commentary on the outcome of "free speech". Constitution is mentioned in passing.
 
Protecting' the Populace from Cults . . . .and Other 'Dangerous' Information on the Internet. A discussion of the 1st amendment in light of current events including, but not limited to, Heaven's Gate mass suicide
 
Would the Real 1st Amendment Please Stand Up? A short series of web pages lead you to an on-line book that takes a close look at the entire 1st amendment.
 
PROSOX This site emphasises freedom from religion. It has links to political websites maintained by major religious organizations. Who's going around the Constitution? And how are they doing it? The content of these links makes an interesting study.
 
Establishing the History of the Establishment Clause, part 1. Maintainer makes excellent points about the Constitution in general and the 1st amendment especially. Also, refreshing to find someone else interested in an aspect of 1st amendment other than "free speech".
 
Barefoot Bob's 1st amendment page A very nice breakdown of the entire first amendment. Maintainer's Comments


AMENDMENT II

Paragraph 1 A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State,
FindLaw
 
Comprehensive Bibliography Of The Second Amendment In Law Reviews Your one-stop page for pro-gun law reviews. The Second Amendment is germane to the Constitution, and this page is germane to that issue - hence the link.
 
The Gun Owners of Vermont Check out the Vermont State Constitution article 16 quote.
 
The Right to Keep and Bear Arms A concise, well-orgainized site with clearly presented and clearly stated information. Site is pro-gun.
 
1999 Gun Case Case involves "Commerce Clause", 5th, 10th, and 2nd amendments, with emphasis (based on volume of related text) on 2nd amendment.
 
gunlaws.com An excellent collection of calmly-stated information about gun laws. This has information about gun law at the State and Federal levels.
 
Targeting Deceit A 26-page article rebutting pro-gun control arguments. Rebuttal is based on a comparison of benefits and costs related to the results of gun use. Contrasts with pro-gun control arguments which only cite costs. Persuasive.
 
Gun Control Hall of Fame Adolph Hitler is at the top of this list of over 45 individuals and organizations supporting gun control . . .
 
Legal scholarship on the Second Amendment An excellent compilation of articles related to the second amendment.
 
Reservation of Powers Gun control discussed in the context of the commerce clause and the 10th amendment.
 
Freedom's Insurance Policy A pro-gun rights page with measured tone.
 
Militia Defined Excellent discourse on the second. Has concise breakdown of related clauses in Constitution along with relevant extra-Constitutional citations.
 
Barefoot Bob's 2nd amendment page Fine treatise on the 2nd with some information about some pertinent original source documents. Maintainer's Comments
 
Yahoo! - Society and Culture:Firearms:Policy:Gun Rights Related heading of Yahoo's Browse Section.
 
The Embarrasing 2nd Amendment A must read, whatever your position on the 2nd amendment and no matter how the title strikes you. Excellent article.


AMENDMENT III

Paragraph 1 No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the
FindLaw
 
Maintainer's Comments


AMENDMENT IV

Paragraph 1 The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and
FindLaw
 
Fourth Amendment Rights A 63-second audio clip related to the 4th amendment. File size is about 500K, so it loads pretty fast.
 
Personal Privacy Mostly as pertaining to cyber or net issues, personal rights, freedoms, 1st. Amendment, Horror Stories, 4th. Amendment, you'll find it here. Site also has a discussion group you can join.
 
Freedom Thoughts: A one-sided view in defense of freedom. Has calm tone and links to information related to privacy issues. Maintainer offers to correspond with interested parties.
 
Privacy Law in the USA Site has good basic information about privacy, including definitions and court cases.
 
EPIC Electronic Privacy Information Center homepage. Current issues, etc., related to privacy.
 
Privacy, General Discussion of privacy by a European, hence, not specifically related to the US Constitution; however, worth a stop because general (if not universal) concepts associated with privacy are discussed, especially with reference to the internet.
 
Law & Technology An essay that comments on privacy, technology and the Constitution.
 
Privacy in the Computer Age Comments about impact of technology on privacy issues.
 
Government:Law:Privacy Among other things, the 4th amendment is related to privacy. So are the links in this section of Yahoo's Browse Section.


AMENDMENT V

Paragraph 1 No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous
FindLaw
 
Fifth Amendment Rights A 63-second audio clip related to the 5th amendment. File size is about 500K, so it loads pretty fast.
 
 
"Takings" Resource Guide Maintainer defines "Takings", cites abuses, offers remedies.


AMENDMENT VI

Paragraph 1 In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy
FindLaw
 
Sixth Amendment Rights A 63-second audio clip related to the 6th amendment. File size is about 500K, so it loads pretty fast.


AMENDMENT VII

Paragraph 1 In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty
FindLaw


AMENDMENT VIII

Paragraph 1 Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel
FindLaw
 
Eighth Amendment Rights A 63-second audio clip related to the 8th amendment. File size is about 500K, so it loads pretty fast.


AMENDMENT IX

Paragraph 1 The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be
FindLaw
 
Election 2000 On-site commentary about how this clause related to election 2000.

Ninth Amendment Text relates 9th amendment to several issues of current interest.


AMENDMENT X

Paragraph 1 The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor
FindLaw
 
Tenth Amendment Rights A 63-second audio clip related to the 10th amendment. File size is about 500K, so it loads pretty fast.
 
Election 2000 On-site commentary about how this clause related to election 2000.
 
Mid-America Freedoms Network Positive political action for passage of State-level 10th amendment legislation in all 50 States.
 
Related Clauses While this page does not itself specifically allude to the 10th amendment, the clauses it cites from the Constitution set limits on federal powers and hence are related to the extent of State powers.
 
Federalism Links This clause in the Constitution opens a list of powers delegated to the proposed central (federal) government. These links discuss federalism and there is even one concerning statism.
 
The State Debate A lengthy essay about the silencing of the States in the 1970's in a dry academic tone.
 
Reservation of Powers A good general essay on the 10th that expands its scope to include the commerce clause and gun control.
 
American Party Tenth Amendment Resolution I have found several States' rights organizations with similar postings. This happens to be one that I bookmarked. An interpretation of the 10th that you won't hear from the bench.


AMENDMENT XI

Paragraph 1 The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to
FindLaw
 
Overview Page contains a general overview of the 11th amendment.


AMENDMENT XII

FindLaw

Paragraph 1 The Electors shall meet in their respective States and vote by ballot for

Election 2000 On-site commentary about how this clause related to election 2000.


The Missing 13th Amendment

Maintainer's Comments
 
Barefoot Bob: The Titles of Nobility Amendment Material on this link supports the idea that a proposed amendment to the Constitution was ratified and then subsequently disappeared. Discussion extends to the impact that this amendment might have had and the consequences of its subversion.
 
The Titles of Nobility Amendment Material on this link refutes the idea that a proposed amendment to the Constitution was ratified and then subsequently disappeared. Discussion extends to the possible motives of those who circulate information that proposes such an event occurred.


AMENDMENT XIII

FindLaw
AMENDMENT XIII Section 1.1 Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a

AMENDMENT XIII Section 2.1 Congress shall have power to enforce this article by



AMENDMENT XIV

FindLaw
 
The 14th Amendment, Application(s) Legal?!!! Site has excerpts from the Congressional record challenging application of the 14th amendment.

Slaughterhouse Case Equal rights discussed from a supreme Court ruling 125 years old in April, 1998. If individual rights and legitimate government powers have clear boundaries between them, this case illustrates where that court considered the boundary to be. mc

AMENDMENT XIV Section 1.1 All persons born or naturalized in the United States,

Election 2000 On-site commentary about how this clause related to election 2000.


AMENDMENT XIV Section 2.1 Representatives shall be apportioned among the several


AMENDMENT XIV Section 3.1 No person shall be a Senator or Representative in


AMENDMENT XIV Section 4.1 The validity of the public debt of the United States,


AMENDMENT XIV Section 5.1 The Congress shall have power to enforce,



AMENDMENT XV

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XV Section 1.1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not


AMENDMENT XV Section 2.1 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by



AMENDMENT XVI

Paragraph 1 The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from
Maintainer's Comments
 
FindLaw
 
1913 1040 Form Four (4), count 'em, FOUR!!! pages. ONE (1), yes that's right, ONE PERCENT tax rate with a top tax rate of 6%!!! Site maintainer is a former (and apparently somewhat devout) Mac application developer converted to PC'ism by pragmatic considerations. This conversion, along with the fact that selling tax info is not his mainstay, lends credibility to the material on his site, at least in my estimation. Also, site has other pages of likely interest to anyone browsing here.
 
Tax Code On-line It's worth a visit to this site to see just how cumbersome the US Tax code actually is.
 
Tax Protestor Hall of Fame Site is maintained by a law student who holds the establishment position regarding taxation. Nonetheless, maintainer is honest enough to post e-mail responses from some who hold a different view than the establishment.
 
Yahoo! - Business and Economy:Taxes:Reform The links in this heading of Yahoo's Browse section will take you to information in which most of the basic issues relating to tax reform are broached and the better supporting arguments are advanced.
 
The UCC Connection Text on this site relates to the Uniform Commercial Code and the current court rulings in tax cases.


AMENDMENT XVII

FindLaw
Paragraph 1 The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each
Democratizing the Constitution Article about impact of the 17th amendment.

Paragraph 2 When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the

Paragraph 3 This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term



AMENDMENT XVIII

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XVIII Section 1.1 After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture,


AMENDMENT XVIII Section 2.1 The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce


AMENDMENT XVIII Section 3.1 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as



AMENDMENT XIX

FindLaw

Paragraph 1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or

Paragraph 2 Congress shall have power to enforce this Article by appropriate



AMENDMENT XX

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XX Section 1.1 The terms of the President and Vice-President shall end


AMENDMENT XX Section 2.1 The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year,


AMENDMENT XX Section 3.1 If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the


AMENDMENT XX Section 4.1 The Congress may by law provide for the case of the


AMENDMENT XX Section 5.1 Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of


AMENDMENT XX Section 6.1 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been



AMENDMENT XXI

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XXI Section 1.1 The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution


AMENDMENT XXI Section 2.1 The transportation or importation into any State,


AMENDMENT XXI Section 3.1 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been



AMENDMENT XXII

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XXII Section 1.1 No person shall be elected to the office of the President


AMENDMENT XXII Section 2.1 This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been



AMENDMENT XXIII

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XXIII Section 1.1 The District constituting the seat of Government of the

AMENDMENT XXIII Section 1.2 A number of electors of President and Vice-President


AMENDMENT XXIII Section 2.1 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by



AMENDMENT XXIV

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XXIV Section 1.1 The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any


AMENDMENT XXIV Section 2.1 The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by



AMENDMENT XXV

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XXV Section 1.1 In case of the removal of the President from office or of


AMENDMENT XXV Section 2.1 Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the


AMENDMENT XXV Section 3.1 Whenever the President transmits to the President pro


AMENDMENT XXV Section 4.1 Whenever the Vice-President and a majority of either the


AMENDMENT XXV Section 4.2 Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President



AMENDMENT XXVI

FindLaw

AMENDMENT XXVI Section 1.1 The right of citizens of the United States, who are


AMENDMENT XXVI Section 2.1 The Congress shall have the power to enforce this



AMENDMENT XXVII

Paragraph 1 No law, varying the compensation for the services of the Senators and
FindLaw

Book Guide . Site Index . Downloading . E-Mail

Content Copyright 1996 - 2001 by TCNbP Company.
Design copyright Simon Haigh 2000, 2001
All Rights Reserved.